Turkana Boy. Is the specimen normal, or disabled? Scientists cannot conclude even basic information from the most complete human skeleton ever found. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Nature Group, p. 235. This, one of the most complete so-called ancient man skeletons ever found, reveals that this ancient man is close to identical to modern men, actually within the range of modern humans. The significance of this discovery will be discussed below. Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. 2018. This is an almost complete skeleton of an 11 or 12 year old boy, the only major omissions being the hands and feet. It would probably have reached well over 900 to 1,100 cubic centimeters if he had grown into an adult. A bronze replica of the skeleton can be seen in the gardens of the famed Matt Bronze art gallery in Nairobi. Reconstruction of Turkana Boy, a specimen of the hominin Homo ergaster. 2013. [11] He was about 5 feet 3 or 5 feet 5 inches tall and likely weighed 106 pounds. [8] MacLarnon, Ann M. 1993. The skeleton was discovered in 1984 by Kamoya Kimeu, a member of a team led by Richard Leakey, at Nariokotome near Lake Turkana in northwest Kenya. Lake Turkana, formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Great Rift Valley in northwest Kenya.Its far northern end crosses into Ethiopia.. Discovered west of Lake Turkana, Kenya in the mid-1980s, the 1.5-million-year-old fossil is the most complete skeleton of a fossil human ancestor ever found. This specimen is the most complete early human skeleton ever found. A Kenyan; Mr. Kamoya Kimeu, made our most famous discovery, the Turkana Boy dated 1.6Million years. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 2018. Body hair was lost in the shift towards savanna living. A key factor here is that while modern humans have a marked adolescent growth spurt, chimpanzees do not. The only bones missing were those of the hands and feet. Wikimedia Commons. His estimated age at death depends upon whether the maturity stage of his teeth or skeletal is used, and whether that maturity is compared to that of modern humans or chimpanzees. It is the world's largest permanent desert lake and the world's largest alkaline lake. His disability, if it existed,  could have hindered his movement. This is a major blow to classical evolution. [2] Called a “nearly complete” skeleton and well preserved (though missing most all of the hand and foot bones), it is actually only 40 percent complete based on the assumption that bones from one side of the body can accurately determine the traits of the bones on the other side. He had long legs and narrow shoulders, typical of humans living in hot, dry climates. The arms were slightly longer. “Homo Ergaster & Homo Erectus.” http://www.enzimuseum.org/the-stone-age/stone-age-ancestors/homo-ergaster. [3] Walker, Alan  and Pat Shipman. The main so-called ‘primitive’ traits include low sloping forehead, strong brow ridges, and the absence of a chin – traits typical of Neanderthals. The Turkana Boy - Homo ergaster Date: 1.5 -1.9 million years ago Lived: Africa, possibly migrated out into regions of the Middle East and Asia Language ability: limited speech and language ability. The bone count of Turkana Boy is 108 bones out of an average of 206 for modern humans, but the count may include some broken bones. [14] Consequently, 85 percent of the body cannot be evaluated, and interpretations and extrapolation must be made from the 15 percent available for study. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. As far as we can tell, the only difference between Turkana Boy and modern humans is some Neanderthal traits in the skull. This was taken to imply that there was less innervation of the muscles of the diaphragm. Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. “Average Cranium/ Brain Size of Homo neanderthalensis vs. Homo sapiens.” https://www.cobbresearchlab.com/issue-2-1/2015/12/24/average-cranium-brain-size-of-homo-neanderthalensis-vs-homo-sapiens. “Turkana Boy,” or "Nariokotome Boy," is the name given to an early specimen of Homo erectus that lived and died approximately 1.5 million years ago. An analysis of the fossil claimed that the channel in the thoracic verterbrae through which the spinal cord passed was significantly narrower in Turkana Boy than in modern humans. His bones indicate he did not die from a predator attack because his skeleton shows no damage from either predators or scavengers. Permission must be cleared for use by museums, in exhibitions, private use and front covers. From this observation, a novel was completed by a French author claiming that Turkana Boy was on the brink of modern human evolution. “What Percentage of Body Mass is Bone?” https://www.livestrong.com/article/368497-percentage-of-body-mass-bone/. 11-13. This specimen is sometimes classified as Homo erectus. This shows racism, because traits like skin color and nose shape are not preserved in fossils. Turkana Boy’s cranialcapacity at death was 880 cubic centimeters, but scientists estimate it would have reached 909 cubic centimeters if he had grown into adulthood. If only a few fossil bone fragments are discovered (as is the norm), usually even more controversy erupts about the status of the fragments. [5] Maina Kiarie. From this lone skeleton an entire race of people has evolved, at least in the stories told by others, such as Professors Alan Walker and his wife Pat Shipman. It is a nearly complete skeleton of a hominid who died in the early Pleistocene 1.5 million years ago (mya), near present-day Lake Turkana in northwest Kenya. By comparison, modern humans living today have an average brain size of about 1,350 cubic centimeters and Neanderthals 1,500 cubic centimeters. He was discovered by Kamoya Kimeu in 1984. [13], Racism Continues in Evolutionary Anthropology. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. Compared with modern Homo sapiens, from the last 200,000 years, Homo erectus, or upright man, had a long reign. [7] Homo ergaster. Research showed that his growth differed from that of modern humans: he would have had a shorter and smaller adolescent growth spurt. 150 (3): 365–374. The term “Ergaster” is derived from the Greek word for “workman,” in reference to the comparatively advanced Acheulean technology this group developed. The Nariokotome Homo erectus Skeleton. [10] Pelvis evaluation shows he was possibly male, but due to damage on the hip bones, the inference is not firm. By volume it is the world's fourth-largest salt lake after the Caspian Sea, Issyk-Kul Lake and the (shrinking) Aral Sea.Among all lakes, it ranks 24th in area. Turkana boy, or Nariokotome boy, is the fossilKNM-WT 15000. [11] Walker, Alan; and Richard Leakey. Probably had advanced communication skills and the capability to produce some simple words and communicate to a greater degree than is seen in our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees. It is usually referred to as the "Turkana Boy." The public press on Turkana Boy has been minuscule compared to that of Lucy, likely because this find was claimed to be 1.4 million years old by some experts and as old as 1.9 million Darwin years by others. [3] The possibility that Turkana Boy was an unusual looking child in his culture was rarely considered. In 1984, Richard Leakey's team working at Nariokotome on the western side of Lake Turkana found a nearly complete Homo erectus skeleton of a n 8-12 year old boy dating to 1.6 million years ago. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. The Wisdom of the Bones: In Search of Human Origins. The oldest men in … “The vertebrate canal,” in: Alan Walker, Richard Leakey (Eds.). The skeleton’s completeness has allowed scientists to learn a lot about body size, body shape, and growth rates of people of its time, though much of it still debated. 1996. Renowned conservationist and fossil-expert Richard Erskine Frere Leakey (born in Nairobi in 1944) is best remembered for his discovery of the 'Turkana boy'. The artwork continues a long Darwinian tradition that assumes blacks are less evolved than whites, as believed by racists and the Ku Klux Klan for the last century. Lake Turkana should be in your bucket list. [12] Of course, there is very little relationship between cranial capacity of normal adult humans and human intelligence, so attempts to prove missing-link status by brain size are questionable. Turkana Boy, now called, Nariokotome Boy, is the common name of fossil KNM-WT 15000, [nb 1] a nearly complete skeleton of a hominid who died in the early Pleistocene. Actually, aside from Lucy, Turkana Boy is the most complete evolutionary pre-human skeleton ever discovered. [6] Walker, Alan and Pat Shipman.1996. His age at death has been estimated from 7 years six months to as old as 15 years. It was first thought that he would have grown to 1.85 m tall, but recently a height of 1.63 m was proposed. In terms of dental and skeletal development, the Turkana Boy is clearly adolescent but not a perfect match for either living humans or apes. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. In spite of its completeness, much debate still exists even on basic data, such as its age, the cause of death, and even its sex. Turkana boy, or Nariokotome boy, is the fossil KNM-WT 15000. 1985. “No Skeletal Dysplasia in the Nariokotome Boy KNM-WT 15000 (Homo erectus)—A Reassessment of Congenital Pathologies of the Vertebral Column.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology. A 2013 study shows that, if the rib bones were more carefully arranged, the rib bones were actually symmetrical to the spine, disproving the skeletal dysplasia claim. While most early hominin fossils consist of mere fragments, Turkana Boy’s remains are 40% complete, and include parts of both the skull and the skeleton. [2] Factsanddetails.com The pillar marking the Turkana Boy’s finding site. 1993. Turkana Boy likely made and used stone tools including both stone cores and flakes and even large cutting tools such as hand axes. New York, NY: Talonbooks, p. 62. Homo erectus was taller than earlier human ancestors. His vertebrae, which form the spine, were diseased, causing a subtle curvature and probably slow movement. The Boy was relatively tall, which would have increased his surface area and helped him to lose heat. The Turkana tribe inhabit the Turkana district in Kenya’s Rift Valley Province. Turkana Boy (KNM_WT 15000 skeleton) The skeleton of a young H. erectus male discovered at Nariokotome in the West Turkana region of Kenya. Consequently, finding a 40-percent-complete skeleton is a significant discovery. [13] Beauchemin, Jean-François and Jessica Moore. In 1984, the world famous Turkana boy was found in Nariokotome, a 1.5 million year old, near complete Homo erectus skeleton. From these, entire species and populations are concocted by Darwinians. [7] By implication, little or no human evolution has occurred in 1.9 million years. …paleoanthropologists, is also called “Turkana Boy.” It is extraordinary in its completeness; only a humerus and the ends of the hands and feet are missing. Kids Encyclopedia Facts Turkana boy – steps of forensic facial reconstruction/approximation Turkana boy, or Nariokotome boy, is the fossil KNM-WT 15000. ScienceDaily. This affects the estimation of both his age and his likely stature as a fully grown adult. It is a nearly complete skeleton of a hominidwho died in the early Pleistocene1.5 millionyears ago (mya), near present-day Lake Turkanain northwest Kenya. It is a nearly complete skeleton of a hominid who died in the early Pleistocene 1.5 million years ago (mya), near present-day Lake Turkana in northwest Kenya. [4] As usual, even in this case, much disagreement exists about his scientific classification. These finds indicated to scientists that the homo erectus and the homo habilis are likely to … Thus, the racial inference is due to artistic license. https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/homo_ergaster.htm. Turkana Boy is the common name of Homo erectus. The most recent scientific review suggests 8 years of age. Dubbed the Turkana Boy, this human fossil was discovered in 1984 by Kamoya Kimeu who was a member of a research team led by world-famous anthropologist Dr. Richard Leakey. The date of Turkana Boy illustrates that some of the other putative evolutionary ancestors cannot be our ancestors because they were close to contemporary with some modern humans such as Turkana Boy! Homo erectus is generally regarded as a direct ancestor of Homo sapiens sapiens – present day humans. T Because his second molars had erupted, but not the third molars called wisdom teeth, he was determined to be a pre-adolescent. ‘Turkana Boy’ KNM-WT 15000 – skeleton discovered in 1984 by Kamoya Kimeu in Nariokotome, West Turkana, Kenya. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. Before that, scientists also discovered the fossils of a homo habilis. The highlights are endless i.e. 359–390. [8] From this observation, the conclusion was his vertebrae were diseased, causing a subtle curvature and probably slow movement which may have contributed to his death. The Turkana boy is a fossil of a homo erectus boy dated back to 1.8 million years ago. In the past, Stones and Leopards wore different ornaments, ate apart at feasts, and raided in separate columns as warriors. Most claimed early-man fossils consist of a few teeth, plus broken skull and other bone fragments. This well-preserved skeleton helped to piece together our historical understanding of Homo Erectus (early 'upright man') and traces the pre-cursor of our current species back to this region some 1.6 million years ago. The most complete H. erectus fossil was discovered in 1984 near Lake Turkana in Kenya. The skeleton still had features (such as a low sloping forehead, strong brow ridges, and the absence of a chin) not seen in H. sapiens. Instead, he is portrayed as typical of his people – just one of many unwarranted assumptions in the Turkana Boy story. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Rather, he can be considered to have patterns of aging that fall between those of living apes and humans. [10] Brown, F. J. Harris, R. Leakey and A. Walker. The skeleton was discovered in 1984 by a team led by Richard Leakey near Lake Turkana in Kenya. The Nariokotome Homo Erectus Skeleton. Even when a largely complete, well-preserved skeleton of a claimed ancient man is located, much debate still arises about even the basic facts about the human that possessed it. 5 Known as Turkana Boy, this fossil’s skull features were similar to H. … This page was last modified on 23 December 2020, at 02:10. This image may not be used in any context outside of mainstream science without the express permission of Atelier Daynes. The youth was already tall at this young… So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. Turkana men belong to either of two alternating age sets, called Stones and Leopards; a man is of the set opposite to that of his father. From this lone skeleton an entire race of people has evolved, at least in the stories told by others, such as Professors Alan Walker and his wife Pat Shipman. This specimen is the most complete early human skeleton ever found. It is believed to be between 1.5 and 1.6 million years old. Artwork of Turkana Boy, as illustrated below, shows him with exaggerated African traits. One of the most complete fossil skeletons ever found, a 1.5-million-year-old specimen of an adolescent male known as Turkana Boy (now known as Nariokotome Boy), may have grown up to 6 feet 1 inches (1.85 meters) tall as an adult. In equatorial Africa, modern humans evolved this trait an estimated one million years ago. 2012. Central Island, Koobi Fora, Sibiloi National Park, IIeret, South Island, Loyangalani, Nabuyatom, Suguta Valley and "Turkana Boy site". It was first classified as Homo erectus; after much heated debate, it was re-classified as Homo ergaster. KNM-WT 15000, "Turkana Boy", Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster) Discovered by Kamoya Kimeu in 1984 at Nariokotome near Lake Turkana in Kenya (Brown et al.1985; Leakey and Lewin, 1992; Walker and Leakey, 1993). 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