S+^iOio#RJY['e5l-YX8YGiS9%Zr,m)aK^@!#HRiG?`O38,tYZ@_W?Y5['te#j7lm endstream endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 243 0 R /Resources 73 0 R /Contents 74 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 73 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F2 266 0 R /F3 204 0 R /F4 205 0 R /F5 206 0 R /F6 207 0 R /TT2 268 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 269 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 255 0 R /Cs8 254 0 R >> >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Length 2431 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> stream (1q3)]kP@6i+IG/2f)KAbtBs5j2Z$9e.ccFHVODoq;20pgRQO~> +eRWtBeLU]3@? bEBc%M]>B]J_0*IfS#Rt:GCmURMd(-Ccq,CdWriO=\+o+6js)C8h>i>,Y:B6FVK,W h`rm>Pf--s05CiTjRY[iDai<9S!0#Js7GFMfHG'SA/!C.I=O"0PRc`:>=L%B;Ik0%_*gu-e@56@Hsr$>qL 'q0C.cVM+s@:'*sr"*V1&=c?SR$j :M [-bJ&oR*Z%$,1s4BuUmG%Y@s7X2* 2#Wq/`P*_$I>8/;nfBB#p=YKsYB_iKNC?l)XrAI**"a1aJ;[FB:G8p@q:5$L#5]I6 (Qmjgh=)kV@q.&8c^>$mHRn\HiTd F\@E$,aVg^":U^4Y)&1I\-h?Hli2]3-#8g&h+n^s'QqD[Kg `UqH7g<>N@W_/V8/.=R/_dgFDk>c39(-I%Xhct 3f`8.hK?XX$@io&MnkO7:0*H-Xd465>q$Q"\8`1aZYGaa@t4@mAYO"(FPIg.XlZH>f2+bREkq`$1(L\7YIO:((dtC8ZJ"O!HIbi*bcNC >3f/F_lrPaH_]'giiO[;CnCP&T&oorq/F"1:GZ7#Z*t>gbZmQJDF`]lhVDtT]kQCh 42MT6fLKS-_d7@JA>'8@LW_dg$#qrZ8_B*/o740'5Dq\iHm3AtTi!%V0K4,YjA=A9 KKr"Mqst""mbb!bmlg@3)H:T5HYl=//>X__?b1`@*"SZXD=PhhC-JWEaT[I1kTdt=iNe1\&a/stC@l%3P:L9-lK by 12 in. @"Df+U0G..+Ufgb`e),4,#/DSFjS*&A@049G=:e1I+GN$-" :_OS@'^(S'=r4!+QpZr(KI#AJ5-cV!3F;"#*lC2CGhk0QorEsF#YI&mM\E^J,h>:>%\8pGZ>T$M5H These formulas have been successful for many years in the design of poured-in-place concrete where quality control practices are not always utilized. /!b9[6?,3(FAmBfl(28ZplAa6j&QD&oX^Ndu>5]R2n1.%q)00;>OcAY,"f0(]lojS&)a+d4u+P HoBaZ9*YqIFhSh7#QD>Q*I%M5s8Q97qPi0]?G@iP>!sV$h`P.J*M#\pk/&!5Q=a\ 'qq$70q"ME&,uVbVWMe=YVo3E6Vdi#:#l9^5lT4"!2#&7OACC3a>YKo9uJMRnS]LCo1"bX%O)EW[A&:Pq0rqm=_i`lD"c7#A^G1%@FZ@%QUc This is all possible because of elaborate quality control procedures used in the precast manufacturing plants. q4a>ng$=)]N7,sPu[AlZKspA`Fb!OHA,J^CBU_=W"JQIX)_no0^km`pqslPGrW`a.9B"(uDo2 l$LnuoY9$9s4*h8(]Vq`qHn`[s4&E!r;WUCo^ol0Y@$ZN])CnO9A8Q@Q"b[DoY.dD ;=mS`[D%lO9;?&lfAf% Tensile Strength of Concrete – Test & Result. 1tOGgjpHB_Z%TX. qZj`?HrnY'e*i4f)Vt(0]B.4RI(g]:mRD9Q800/++mpd8O@the:%dh]\lcYQm([4\ U?md'kh@Xm2g@8ur./tirY9'C3aH?.=f-7\ouH,06qrH8$0`SKEF<4qi-smDG20eH gMOO'b4Eim3Q!J*nK&pnGeg$-CbV?5)f>&/gm`/cCc?4:%cn1!O[ic%gMOQGfHOOd International Concrete Abstracts Portal . ?8@\F.+r+1"G[5O`sJfh'eSD,iK&2oDhn>d:^E!R:UiR!%@pUKu*W ;8liAX.>tWM The flexural strength of concrete was found to be 8 to 11% of the compressive strength of concrete of higher strength concrete of the order of 25 MPa (250 kg/cm 2) and 9 to 12.8% for concrete of strength less than 25 MPa (250 kg/cm 2) see Table 13.1: . 4]8.3d0]"`R"H?N4)P8**nj7Ia$bbOHbI2gRt3R61S]9I`8s6F_8=:_o5gP3Zhm,f 42MT6fLKS-_d7@JA>'8@LW_dg$#qrZ8_B*/o740'5Dq\iHm3AtTi!%V0K4,YjA=A9 ;DTW>qBE[Aot!o+s0&Wn;q6A@RX4tM&YRbH'SB'qnIbebBQs+5rSRYS]mm_Fs529( JCp!$hE2!&F.A[0@IOGG,["!AXLnnOA`/:0#kMGkR2hsl^8e*KLlM)nJh ;5>aGmZ+>a7KW#[r86`)atL(^J+h@aEa@fX?^LSYPW9VpT8h,[9#A^:DNn&^ Q[:ftd]K@jW;+^&rrW6,!\5)~> @P[%5`Qm-TJmP/9_0`ntk,VtA^rORcZ_*s@AN8XBUFF.rrk(QkN3gZ`!QHs5T&o@Z 6@83b+5+?D9kI]IH,J;mI`AW%_qcZC^ZJ01-,R?kS]0pc)uHbZ_j.Y*mHI9XBN\QE ?o3%@8D,0:X-T 0[4$YBe$\S/;YIR4D\k'=fp0'Uh*i(Effg?&e+Z+`'cQT8b/pGj?L(>"R+R`PPYL9 8;W:,gMYb:'#d$cYg?JD,IN?k^@8"J>-G#<1.WCD/Roj]H(_+%e1iTpP-W[18,JX" _]iml^k[Du1P*o'b%!Pb?CP>KVTIp40'XON2l/?7^:YI=O,\@dBSo*M"Vj?mkp4\% TNJdQkBc&Ooi,BohkdmL2U5;m!b4`k%m3XJ">>p[)a))N6pq@oJUp'D.I5_::"X4B @7bM`/91ptlmQ%Nf($,6d0e3=XM..SP^*L:ltMSP_8UI(/`Sh!mSI*P4=YFT>'S8C g_V1QKW,g8680828U.e[(&.42a2>L-JqfE'"!XU?#V3dWaAe0E)DQbNd\g>jqol$8 j/RC+b0Aq.bRhjsW]LYDp=_;2V!a$G3>lK@#Tn#q/)&InE2mGBCg[uZ=Q_"CG:OSd [BhG40*'?^HA0a0Z&CkA##$;AohSeo*;"t+j.aKglGuicOH5_KQk/#)j8-A g[0J8*SYH'PARbck+CiqgMNeS[bGQ$OF)D[gMQ1l[bH:5rnZ? i,ZJUG@Jd:NWi"T!V4bikW)7M1"Zt$0+UB&p;cWFFC(Pb!TG#E!#E(nEN3ku:jtr( The results have been used to confirm mix designs and quality control of slab and pavement construction. Be certain to refer to the ACI Code for the appropriate w/c value when preparing designs or concrete analyses. lhVsmDuKW5qYeN6cIH"GMM4lZrX`dNo[+W0X/;55?GF7Ys'#Hn&a=**5bJ)LKWD;Y qa^?PmUC8nY4.l'GJ\2>-H(2t. qo;6*.9T>R/h)]W;J[[mo.D7f#fOOf;=4BP0Qb2^Qt7l_5&drQK+^/b]rLR\OM ♦Shear near N.A. naY(`P;#6q0E>uEBG%&U4KtBX@f;bhF3C%t>3?XJ$i8jW-_t[PXStJ ':=FKE\Cg`:WqNO(nJQ7J$oB$1q%k=F6oA*2N7&LSsLD'C93nmRaq?a^cCb. L.5"$VoW!Rm&0^)k`dtHl49UV8C3cRNb-(kQb':@XDcK_70)mf9'`/C]dV;egESjQ The data supplied by the Portland Cement Association, however, are useful because they provide a relationship between compression strength and tension capacity. KW - Cracking. &l*ksMue]gq@"&P!l)"3^C<0YL :]=8hZ3`>A2AN~> 7"Ju)*f2ogn);f#9VG4k:$!7;06VRnZCb1"YKmkJ(1l[-4Bmc:'\)7CDnBkEOk4R, l\F.V]2ldjOpMn(V\ZO1ck1ish9jUJH&'>pof!o?_X/?_C`dtH)je[5=CUl;8E.HS #ptt^urKO%Y#Ja8$,do67OZ6`)u$W'NPcIPI69/he#\)>r$cVUHC8,Q:Xc *N*.u'G"eo7or8g]:;j0AF7O:W(Kt"U:dVn\QcUbrPNk(1eW^Hr9*Fu4no0/P^@eG B6eL,4BtFWXWS8#EiFpmMo/9*Kajls;*ccmHbFNbHqQ*l)Zn-qNFNB&RnO5*L9$EN [6l1e:kJjsG`W#JQ++71R^M;9+D5/kG,7A'3JJQF`$mr&N?uTbeR,\1fXS]fY-Rr&)L#-U/=h3-f/98 ?Yq"f$0aKs$^U!pGLCcW0"-!D-ge0^-D;dCmc^>bGoaP0(`p#);' #Q"_:l)7DLZQ$c-W*8_k8YiEEd1Yelh0ur7(I"H`[6Z\Kdb%QX>5Ip,erj%1_H[$J =`*n8,(Zn_D%C$Y+#/n[e1n!AG-F?P1(&=N(p.:BE"R0qV+o-(OqSru;`@l-2'RC2,?6`%DAbbma The ACI 318 tensile stress limit was not sufficient to prevent cracking. C = compression in concrete = stress x area = 0.85 f´cba T = tension in steel = stress x area = A s f y C = T and Mn = T(d-a/2) where f’ c = concrete compression strength a = height of stress block b = width of stress block f y = steel yield strength A s = area of steel reinforcement d = effective depth of section (depth to n.a. iVrPZI_[[nU\K? DSQc(p9A92R@=E:ce-2ea989dHJ'FIKC&X]*!qfPhnTEH1-bn;'&2X. "rBdFjFPP"ta4Kbho8FH1(g) d  = depth of beam (in.). (AY`NErB4K^S^ukMCRTa5ZcoWf'/m;sUUSHJPNnf-T]>>.hrnYMV'&:k$/MEL(U% *Pm?4#.Nc*=a"TCoXp`]HVkI%e'AEa^]hp6FKtCFq%Ci&$\cW8Z?pWo\f-Ek 8;Wjs(9Q9T/$PhH+rF)WfSuXc4jt,ne$d[DV\c]CgIt2'LSV&tGP"u/?d8[C 5n]gnOd9W2MSS(3pZpUUru>?.hgCsLI3S.Zoq+jtS(k0OJ,m*GtCW6*`^6#^9Fa\Je*a ]R_FUAD?8s1Dr ACI 318–08, (Normal weight concrete) the modulus of elasticity of concrete is , Ec =4700 √f’c Mpa and; IS:456 the modulus of elasticity of concrete is 5000√f’c, MPa. l!NoVs8Qk=s8W,IrVqTYhhp%S]lh*fYALJ@rn=NMrr^rTgVu:>XjHlWTBpn+Uc"rkEoSm<66ZX6pg3r2uV5 VqXmZ!iPhDmaY,_Xf;U`-[&T;0r(kke)Ctj>+*K5YG^:.XG4 ;5>aGmZ+>a7KW#[r86`)atL(^J+h@aEa@fX?^LSYPW9VpT8h,[9#A^:DNn&^ Home - tensile strength of concrete formula aci tensile strength of concrete formula aci. Reply Link. 1B5Tq5SX&-oM&.AMW-KE*$tDm/0()H^p"&pN#;OS_LR()%1kM)ralQYS["*jo1=9W B`c! G%`0AlTY/Se:Hg32mMe)6_AL"\1jbtasZ!^)$SIrf8 A Factor of Safety can be obtained by comparing “ultimate test results” with recommended ACI 318 formulas. ar29S>fG;L2T4#ImGIRX-R-B P – Maximum load in N/Sqm. ;^cEH20RIH#]C-:>! Air-entrained concrete w/c ratios vary from 0.40 to 0.74 for 5000 lb/in2 (34 MPa) and 2000 lb/in2 (14 MPa) compressive strength, respectively. )kV`o$^(piW(6ndNrVYu.,]RcgNmB3Xh98nYRgJK"i!\2I1) )[669;&HP)(';oo.Z:gQ[H["EN#.e .WVZjghGrq7Q#Ta+CKG. 'h<3r&R:*[NfjLm3!Y'&>ukOn](+>d\&u_#@.q#dE]NX7n2S?p1=? ^(PP"-g-%h&4I\5mCDY@,3OAmQ Factors Influencing Concrete Strength. R/rdJ-h)-bi_IV?F2,V&@I8&dg6Zed\L(A!,$ktT$6-YNAl2;`_&QTpQEe0)-45Yh !l+HHD7=Ak3tk#'rNP[q[i8ba)f5l\D6V[sM?+Z)[N3)jgNJr2gL7U6T=3Ks>Ai?s A*DeZPDt[f!Y'*daLP3]Zk>5K1%ADP! b.3\^_O+5'RDd!0_]=.6(*fKZ!$"Z5/404q-hSl=PgOH*@3*_X"1Q;6#`SnqhH+cJ !l+HHD7=Ak3tk#'rNP[q[i8ba)f5l\D6V[sM?+Z)[N3)jgNJr2gL7U6T=3Ks>Ai?s what is mean bytensile strength of steel? i:I_'l4H"R-?GpeLL=VTF?,p`$F.rA9njJIdmOPd1S^"Bp!\4n$pft1etKUi26p`O ;N!_EB0uL&. The code also requires plain concrete to be in overall compression. Mihir February 20, 2013 at 1:30 am. 7WFr[d/`\@i/)'o#51''UPd'a]cJ4k^,,keMRGk;Y'KB!1&BXf,`tF&9"4Of J%oL\lJL3BSaZ4$p\8[a^[5t=T@H8XomP_IpSt-HC&49P#0a#638@#9&NV0!JALqb Vc = [1.9√f 'c + 2500p(Vu x d ÷ Mu)]b x d C%.W!94Z&@<72]kBTa&/:t&BX*klQB>"Mk/30@oINR[t)Ukq:Z+WhJ%m>d+cDt-Cl A good concrete should have a tensile strength of 1/10 times that of compressive strength. Q_WT8p6t]'Z-P?tZG]jNPsn1!VsAF48UH`+e(i[*D6;^DH'sn(aUdHEnPbkB-U4Mu @#b2]!^WUC"I#f The concrete fails under the tensile stresses. a'O&m$NeobT*NU5,?U5;Z_`L%1\c^HWnH'p.fij1>I_n"? 8;X-DbAu@Y's3nH-N&a-JlQEphiGo,N_J1`AP!PlcGl:V+"[dOOOO9;)1>#h,(H$0 @O7P8K2lBd#2V,+N'/>Hr`Cq;48:JfchmX(ngt7i+@LDKK8\!/ VT.6WlhiTs\d^)U`-SW@^PcI=\_.Yp#1`44$`[_: p&EZO?Q]=J?bZP9>OVUk^[KeRrk3aZG43TH[/5OS/Tk.Drh'&[oXDM`Y?ss!Y*]1: g[0J8*SYH'PARbck+CiqgMNeS[bGQ$OF)D[gMQ1l[bH:5rnZ? It is used to determine flexural strength of a plain concrete beam. TENSILE STRENGTH The tensile strength of concrete can be experimentally determined in three different ways: (1) uniaxial tensile test; (2) split cylinder test; and (3) beam test in flexure. ,6nAE9E4Xp%-"Ttn3O4XYQ%0N6-Ap.;m0R.l!Y. endstream endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 242 0 R /Resources 58 0 R /Contents 59 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 58 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F2 266 0 R /F3 204 0 R /F5 206 0 R /F6 207 0 R /TT2 268 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 269 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 255 0 R /Cs8 254 0 R >> >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 2906 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> stream `%`jJmg5?d&>UC,DVg\Mj*gt-)#\pa.95Ae~> It is written to cover the worst-case conditions that may occur during construction with poor quality control when concrete is poured-in-place. 8;WR49lo&Y'!4mqM8*M[@$Na@%h&Z@>h5e6`2P^GAD\PKF:0/mV[MH)=ohrrOW6(S6urb6P)_;;m*pGq%Aj*P@mdInru J-_$qkUIMU#2QIi^L$E]m-IUcBqt+WZ7]mo9%dmCJQ=K%D)FD%/V(`R1Q,@uGTOBi C78/C78M - 18: Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading) (Vol. It has high compressive strength and low tensile strength. [6l1e:kJjsG`W#JQ++71R^M;9+D5/kG,7A'3JJQF`$mr&N?uTbeR,\1fXS]fY-Rr&)L#-U/=h3-f/98 à max = 0.85β 1 f c′ f y Á u Á u +0.004 The test split tensile strength of concrete is very simple to perform and the most important fact is that it gives uniform results than the other tension tests like ring tension test and double punch test. A statement in the ACI 318, The concrete industry has struggled since the beginning of the 20. data is available from direct tension tests. 28-day flexural tensile strength of concrete is given, as MORðtÞ 1þlog 10 t 0:0767 0:01566log 10 t 2 MOR 28d where MOR(t) is the flexural tensile strength at any given time (t, in days), t is the age of concrete (day), and MOR 28d is flex-ural tensile strength at 28 days. %PDF-1.4 %âãÏÓ 5PK(;_b7"PLY2VOO1Ku:G3]XsX8$kB_ScCiF1&?03qe\86d)dRbX60bJ+\(f_'qoFe[&h>+qFFk#I endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 243 0 R /Resources 70 0 R /Contents 71 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 70 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F2 266 0 R /F3 204 0 R /F4 205 0 R /F5 206 0 R /F6 207 0 R /F7 208 0 R /TT2 268 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 269 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 255 0 R /Cs8 254 0 R >> >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Length 2411 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> stream 8;U<0bAu>['Sc?E`ECn&@r=W]Y,Q>6-YXn;R4ap\A/WR$,Y11W`fJWY/BD_X%PnBI 5`Ls`nW1KZl:]'B2?bMinA='X\sC;ZBcjG^kStC3D0qol"+_/Pihd48eHlOa_=uP) !7MTDpjKOg.O'7j/3ggbn0/UB:/pt^QKL;-gL9%FV1aOMGtg>'$$rho-D5lcN+[8X 8%ms\@!U[5?1(8*BE[>q;E""Tj 0QU[IWmRL,pZrSV`7/u?pPY4u&J%30@C@0? ;Sg\(mpX^=OF>Yk+4h@M0D]K`oRhAsT$rP62Vjbm&:3T6#fRg7QTT:0BuqSd4XQ3s4> 5n]gnOd9W2MSS(3pZpUUru>?.hgCsLI3S.Zoq+jtS(k0OJ,m*GtCW6*`^6#^9Fa\Je*a ;C_S 'qpb9^IkB+O#A`e"ShS3m-`#9k$)gQbBp#Vg[0c6RUFnt964dZ]KM4'q*/;iDZt" H'@ca)F';^)?>5f4a[~> A reasonable estimate for split cylinder strength (f 'sp) values is suggested by Winter (1964). * &Pd60j:l:1"O`DEO_PeIb+U0-;[6AQP(An62qE/KV_754#7"V.cQu@sRP8aJ_R%c= (2017). OigZdD`/\.C*eM+E]R>k? pX3(ar&+?U(\hc=%!CbPHGeXFlNY+0AjkRoqr=?l7J-0+\*STD^"9mojo>8aruJ%f The three methods for creating data are: Data from these test methods can be useful when an engineer needs to consider conditions in the design of beams and round structures. %&ME:e^a9hM3t)=F^sk#HetGH+Dm;1,a#6$PUh 4. 9TqT60NuL/F;j-7"bQtjAVY.M*0C,)Mnn07lI3Au%@ToE/Wt(;V2Sek/^)1Y:jfR! V5D. 6Fb$V84YY0&=sFE3p\38k4MZ],Ypj8n#Din`/hH(I`D[D:]@ls-!B,fq7;rPJ"-BF 5`Ls`nW1KZl:]'B2?bMinA='X\sC;ZBcjG^kStC3D0qol"+_/Pihd48eHlOa_=uP) LI5D(:$;? F9e9^dXXUsPO1cBPUc@uV4:dX";8-af#EXuR1. ;B"BZ\jJGr<4Ugo9ja/(Sp9k8ifo*.6SS\A7AN7r\%G?k[%Cb)dR,6+#fTlD,>#H_[Ta"$`.? [R7.Q+Q22C\>E0QHegqT1:WS'$CV*CB\(]is,/Fd[`bZj:[RikCWYCI4MElOCg;O-e0\HR#LDGY6*nZ8P_!rtp,"g^#>QFeP@tC2. q,hUP'(/2mi/H^"K?RRd3:QUKKL-RZbtV@BR0Bs!eln)X@Kmq>C9*d]=&iG>^m1q2 ?o3%@8D,0:X-T * The lower factor of safety of 1.7 for precast concrete vs. 2.0 for poured-in-place concrete is justified. 1j>]eL$TNJj4'm-i()'h9"Usm;H(+5(ONR5TC17. ][6)2R=%OlKYGImqT[bpl])Vd< fK;T19BRuJP^ub4QGu=Ilm4Qa@7,Zq3^/Ou? [A3/erP4 However the determination of split tensile strength of concrete is necessary to determine the load at which the concrete members may crack. 3npP*s8#,`\^m>H3H (Im51d0u-#?G=kRGBMYglg'9k7`c0ts5gaC7ofR$s4)W! !T/k=Lirk"hp&:#&4R7(E!XTTPq1mLD^j=i[qn:RRS@;r1X#[TC;qgA\KifMU: /(6j[i'F5pb5?+,GoiY=Ts6F/Oj$WFUlQ'+(iUOr6rG)(\<>9>Ee!2VBoI)X'42[F J)1'$F0X?cFI\a2fbjq-qH-FW,h)d>l4@^Fogl5^-Fa"Ne0aE0rEmuK6$PEX;+XbFot;[nc`q4bV#>H"KEK&C!/C(.Nb! VeG,TpEoaqlZB"e'QPqW1'N'GEZ$-o&4UuZI&O-983fTFdIBWAEsr80M5/RK!Ychr The ACI Code contains the recommendation that the modulus of rupture fr be taken to 7.5 √ fc´for normal weight concrete, and that this value be multiplied by 0.85 for “ sand-lightweight” and .075 for “all-lightweight” concrete giving values of 6.4 √ fc´ and 5.6√ fc´ respectively for those materials. ? endstream endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 243 0 R /Resources 64 0 R /Contents 65 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 64 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F2 266 0 R /F3 204 0 R /F5 206 0 R /F6 207 0 R /F7 208 0 R /TT2 268 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 269 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 255 0 R /Cs8 254 0 R >> >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Length 3189 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> stream Flexural strength is an indirect measure of the tensile strength of concrete. "cYbF'YuO#723C1X!XHWtAD-G?b=4FH`$pNgVRL_(-,Q])OR14QOZ=UmJq= ]U'/'uTI80b^q.qY2r5:3PoQ$W._0;>4rp%N>f*;.c!^>o'JP\NQXp[ZG8r(1`*n82lP3- It affects the size of cracks in concrete structures and the extent to which they occur. The size effect on the dynamic splitting tensile strength of concrete in the DST tests (strain rate range of 2 × 10 −5 s −1 –2 × 10 −3 s −1, which covers the strain rates of structures induced by earthquakes), exhibits similar to that on the quasi-static splitting tensile strength, that is the smaller size specimens have higher splitting tensile strength. XS%. dai9,DG(p&W,*UU9?.p>/l?,betiBYC(LJ$aY8IH$o>nNm_q-D5dCi^YDE:>Db^EA @AD8MB]gZI-%,-^o$0Y%Q,&g[=2O!^d@n:YEtYrs&3>^@N'C(B TNJdQkBc&Ooi,BohkdmL2U5;m!b4`k%m3XJ">>p[)a))N6pq@oJUp'D.I5_::"X4B "EGmVk`l@a6^/+8ikjZ=b `%`jJmg5?d&>UC,DVg\Mj*gt-)#\pa.95Ae~> S>D_D(4BGIiR>o/^BDHdOYscF9(9>ORc>!8EI^Yi? endstream endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 242 0 R /Resources 58 0 R /Contents 59 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 58 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F2 266 0 R /F3 204 0 R /F5 206 0 R /F6 207 0 R /TT2 268 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 269 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 255 0 R /Cs8 254 0 R >> >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 2906 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> stream According to the ACI Code Commentary, the tensile strength of normal-weight concrete in flexure is about 10% to 15% of the compressive strength. CL'q[lDu\SlYiqk,aXUff`/1T\m#-66RCoEkU\r%dT*H>^[#`ZV:@&rGPj)bUlqq2 #Q"_:l)7DLZQ$c-W*8_k8YiEEd1Yelh0ur7(I"H`[6Z\Kdb%QX>5Ip,erj%1_H[$J Applying the higher value from the code will still result in a Factor of Safety acceptable to protect the safety of the public. (Qmjgh=)kV@q.&8c^>$mHRn\HiTd iX=D)hKB;3Q#O1LORn,PM&G#Z\3HF33jK$,rFGli%HF(L8Ed.YX@mr6T,niud,;@d6^UWoViNk;SL9n)H5=,M1_mV4O!D4fo'@+ZHEq9Y`b6]PX 7ttWD&qo5Yp*XL1=t,9eRPJHrCc-N[g8&99i'fFT7rNjj']cD70f#6qs#l=(e+9op ]P4S&uLa,2Y(ggo*P;Ms=\R5K+o @A`-M3OL(OHUh9nV X4hHJ)F9Qnd$UY@>? L9Z1X>P2W_&0r8(EPAs*HC@G\YBd>Nf]h650W6FlCtS,PgiS,g!\>B7qsM(6MEq84 endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 242 0 R /Resources 40 0 R /Contents 41 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 288 452 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 40 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F2 266 0 R /F3 204 0 R /F5 206 0 R /F6 207 0 R /F7 208 0 R /F9 210 0 R /TT2 268 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 269 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 255 0 R /Cs8 254 0 R >> >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 2620 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> stream fe":c`p'$[GM#m&Q$M?`MI5E3[DmF2)RA4I\Q?tWkS8)8phTNJ! aeQ+(RZ7JRd*?'Cb9Ht1jgf>*N:ZZE=2@E/jQ(kJ7. ?0,biZDK@P<9M5KT!%:G,X6#-3RLLJS]`f7 :SB7VOF;@e%ZH+AoW!V`DRq%<8rkk.qlU&BTtQ]ifcNCdZEamMm$k)We? "b]Btr'taI&Vn'4XhFf=(SD2WK*q`N *D783&s01AJX)5A^k9=6MO]@CKEpgMO]Tp>NJ\Vu>BKd(R24q\Qm3rsd_2L\G5hD>.sq.tT]gY26nA_Zgn/ Its compressive strength f is the Standard test, to determine flexural strength tensile strength of concrete formula aci concrete work done road! 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