There are few theaters or art galleries due to the decades of cultural repression under the Qaddafi regime and lack of infrastructure development under the regime of dictatorship. [139], The Libyan Desert, which covers much of Libya, is one of the most arid and sun-baked places on earth. [212], By 2017, 60% of the Libyan population were malnourished. "[83], Organizations of the United Nations, including United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon[84] and the United Nations Human Rights Council, condemned the crackdown as violating international law, with the latter body expelling Libya outright in an unprecedented action. [229], About 97% of the population in Libya are Muslims, most of whom belong to the Sunni branch. By the 10th century, the Shiite Fatimids controlled Western Libya, and ruled the entire region in 972 and appointed Bologhine ibn Ziri as governor. This was a religious revival adapted to desert life. At first, Italy continued the tripartite administration, but soon consolidated the area into a single province/gobernatorate administered as the "Libyan Colony". [130], In March 2020, UN-backed government of Fayez Al-Sarraj commenced Operation Peace Storm. 236–245, especially p. 237, in. [200], In the early 1980s, Libya was one of the wealthiest countries in the world; its GDP per capita was higher than some developed countries. [198] However, natural and environmental conditions limit Libya's agricultural production potential. [118][119] UN support for the SRSG-led process of dialogue carried on in addition to the usual work of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). In 1551, Turgut Reis enslaved almost the entire population of the Maltese island of Gozo, some 5,000 people, sending them to Libya. On the Eastern side, Cyrenaica's first Christian communities were established by the time of the Emperor Claudius. [37] Libya was early to convert to Nicene Christianity and was the home of Pope Victor I; however, Libya was a hotbed for early heresies such as Arianism and Donatism. On 27 February 2011, the National Transitional Council was established to administer the areas of Libya under rebel control. Heads … [193], Unemployment rose from 8% in 2008 to 21% in 2009, according to the census figures. Libya, country located in North Africa comprising three historical regions: Tripolitania in the northwest, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest. Oil production has fallen from 1.6 million barrel per day to 900,000 in four years of war. [189] This allowed the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya state to provide an extensive level of social security, particularly in the fields of housing and education. [31], In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya"; "Libya" remained the official short form, and the country continued to be listed under "L" in alphabetical lists.[32]. Derna in eastern Libya, historically a hotbed of jihadist thought, came under the control of militants aligned with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in 2014. They shoot everything they find, even during the breeding season. Libya extends over 1,759,540 square kilometres (679,362 sq mi), making it the 16th largest nation in the world by size. A large number of Libyan television stations are devoted to political review, Islamic topics and cultural phenomena. The Provinces of Libya existed during the last period of colonial Italian Libya through post-independence Libya. [193] Libya has traditionally relied on unsustainably high levels of public sector hiring to create employment. Prior to the Italian invasion of 1911, the area of Libya was administered as three separate provinces ("Vilayets") of the Ottoman Empire: Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica. Libya's native population of Arabs-Berbers as well as Arab migrants of various nationalities collectively make up 97% of the population as of 2014[update]. [109] On 25 March 2014, in the face of mounting instability, al-Thani's government briefly explored the possibility of the restoration of the Libyan monarchy. After the fall of Carthage the Romans did not immediately occupy Tripolitania (the region around Tripoli), but left it instead under control of the kings of Numidia, until the coastal cities asked and obtained its protection. [94] In addition, the National Transitional Council estimated 50,000 wounded. [198] Before 1958, agriculture was the country's main source of revenue, making up about 30% of GDP. Libya was once the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BC. The coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC. In 1942, Jews who were not in the concentration camps were heavily restricted in their economic activity and all men between 18 and 45 years were drafted for forced labor. The country was divided into provinces from 1934 in the colonial era to 1963 when the Governorates system was instituted. For other uses, see, Location of Libya (dark green) in northern, Parts of this article (those related to The first civil war against Gaddafi and the second Libyan Civil war 2014–present which needs to be added ) need to be, Independence, Kingdom of Libya and Libya under the direction of Gaddafi (1951–2011), Post-Gaddafi era and the Second Libyan Civil War, الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية, الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية العظمى. Desert Lion Perishes, Leaving West Explosive Legacy", "Libyan terrorism: the case against Gaddafi", "Pan Am Flight 103 Bombing – 1988 Lockerbie Bombing Led to Libyan Convictions", "Libya: France recognises rebels as government", "Qaddafi Forces Batter Rebels in Strategic Refinery Town", "Ban Ki-moon blasts Gaddafi; calls situation dangerous", "Libya Expelled from UN Human Rights Council", "Exclusive: Secret tapes undermine Hillary Clinton on Libyan war", "Security Council authorizes 'all necessary measures' to protect civilians in Libya", "French military jets open fire in Libya", "The hidden story of airpower in Libya (and what it means for Syria)", "Gaddafi's rule crumbling as rebels enter heart of Tripoli", "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war", "If the Libyan war was about saving lives, it was a catastrophic failure | Seumas Milne", "Armed militias still on the streets in Libya", "Libya's transitional rulers hand over power", "Fighters bulldoze Sufi mosque in central Tripoli", "Libya's Italian-era gazelle statue disappears in Tripoli", "British war graves in Libya desecrated by Islamist militants", "4 hours of fire and chaos: How the Benghazi attack unfolded", "Abushagur announces a smaller emergency cabinet", "Libyan Prime Minister Mustafa Abu Shagur to stand down", "Libya congress approves new PM's proposed government", "U.S. Navy SEALs Take Control of Diverted Oil Tanker", "Libya ex-PM Zeidan 'leaves country despite travel ban, "Libyan elections: Low turnout marks bid to end political crisis", "Former Libyan parliament reconvenes, elects Islamist premier", "Libya's Islamist militias claim control of capital", "Ties to Islamic State Cited by Group in Libya Attacks", "How strong is the Islamic State in Libya? From 1927 to 1934, the territory was split into two colonies, Italian Cyrenaica and Italian Tripolitania, run by Italian governors. After weakening control of Abbasids, Cyrenaica was under Egypt based states such as Tulunids, Ikhshidids, Ayyubids and Mamluks before Ottoman conquest in 1517. [102][103][104] On 14 October 2012, the General National Congress elected former GNC member and human rights lawyer Ali Zeidan as prime minister-designate. [181] President el-Megarif also ordered that all of the country's militias must come under government authority or disband. It … Comprehensive sanctions were imposed in 1986, including a freeze of Libyan assets and a ban of all trade and financial dealings with the country. Rodd, Francis (1925). [41] In 647 an army led by Abdullah ibn Saad took Tripoli from the Byzantines definitively. Both the spoken Arabic dialects and Berber, still retain words from Italian, that were acquired before and during the Libia Italiana period. Gaddafi officially passed power to the General People's Committees and henceforth claimed to be no more than a symbolic figurehead. The Red Castle Museum located in the capital near the coast and right in the city center, built in consultation with UNESCO, may be the country's most famous.[252]. [80][81], Pro-Gaddaffi forces were able to respond militarily to rebel pushes in Western Libya and launched a counterattack along the coast toward Benghazi, the de facto centre of the uprising. In early 2015, neighbouring Egypt launched airstrikes against ISIL in support of the Tobruk government. Later, a general of the Almohads, Muhammad ibn Abu Hafs, ruled Libya from 1207 to 1221 before the later establishment of a Tunisian Hafsid dynasty[43] independent from the Almohads. [204] Other steps have included applying for membership of the World Trade Organization, reducing subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization. Talks, negotiations and dialogue continued on during mid-2015 at various international locations, culminating at Skhirat in Morocco in early September. By 1819, the various treaties of the Napoleonic Wars had forced the Barbary states to give up piracy almost entirely, and Tripolitania's economy began to crumble. [148][149], On 7 July 2012, Libyans voted in parliamentary elections, the first free elections in almost 40 years. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons", "In Libya, the Captors Have Become the Captive", "US-backed force in Libya face challenges", "Libya orders 'illegitimate' militias to disband", "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death", "Oil production boosts Libya economy, instability hampers reconstruction", United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, "Libya on Recovery Path but Faces Long Rebuilding Effort", "More men unemployed than women in Libya: report", "In a pure coincidence, Gaddafi impeded U.S. oil interests before the war", "Shell returns to Libya with gas exploration pact", "Libya sees thriving tourism industry ahead", "A Green Resort Is Planned to Preserve Ruins and Coastal Waters", "Libyan sovereign wealth fund 'missing $2.9bn, "As The Power Struggle Endures, Libya Eyes 900,000 Bpd Oil Output", https://lvsl.fr/les-sequelles-de-lintervention-de-lotan-en-libye/, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Uprising in Libya: 'Survival Hinges on Tribal Solidarity, "The Family and the work of women, A study in the Libyan Society", "The Politics of Egyptian Migration to Libya", "Policing the Desert: The IOM in Libya Beyond War and Peace", https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-06-17/top-turkish-ministers-meet-un-backed-libya-government-in-Tripoli, "Libya, Tunisia: Migrants – Migration News | Migration Dialogue", "Tamazight declared official language in Amazigh-peopled districts", "Derna: An Islamic State emirate on Egypt's borders", "Islamic State Gained Strength in Libya by Co-Opting Local Jihadists", "Al-Qaeda 'Islamic Police' on Patrol in Libyan City Contested With ISIS", "Foreigners held in Libya on suspicion of proselytising", "ISIS Beheadings in Libya Devastate An Egyptian Village", "History of the Jewish Community in Libya", "After Gaddafi, Libya's Amazigh demand recognition", "CAF America- a global grantmaking organization", "Libya looking at economic diversification", "Libyan Dance Schools in Libya, Dancewear Suppliers, Dancing Organizations, Libyan National Commission for UNESCO, M. A. Oraieth", "North Korea Tops CPJ list of '10 Most Censored Countries", "Libya and Russia viewing resumption of railway projects", "Museum Architecture: beyond the <> and ... beyond", "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)", "Country Higher Education Profiles – Libya", Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Libya&oldid=1002049865, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Berber-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1951, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2016, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with dead external links from December 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from May 2016, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2006, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles to be expanded from February 2013, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from April 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2012, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from October 2012, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2004, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2012, Articles to be expanded from January 2013, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the World Factbook, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States Department of State Background Notes, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 16:19. [71] The Great Manmade River was also built to allow free access to fresh water across large parts of the country. Meanwhile, terrorism within Libya has steadily increased, affecting also neighbouring countries. [128], In April 2019, Khalifa Haftar launched Operation Flood of Dignity, in an offensive by the Libyan National Army aimed to seize Western territories from the Government of National Accord (GNA). There are twenty-two districts of Libya, known by the term shabiyah ( Arabic singular شعبية šaʿbiyya, plural šaʿbiyyāt ). Amensty International Libya's Dark Web of Collusion: Abuses Against Europe-bound Refugees and Migrants – Dec. 2017 (PDF) In 1982, the United States initiated a series of sanctions against Libya, including an embargo on Libyan oil and a new requirement for export licenses for most American goods. It was the second such razing of a Sufi site in two days. Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated. [247] For many years there have been no public theaters, and only very few cinemas showing foreign films. [65] The new jamahiriya (Arab for "republic") governance structure he established was officially referred to as "direct democracy". Almost half of these were Egyptians, followed by Sudanese and Palestinian immigrants. [191], Libya faces many structural problems including a lack of institutions, weak governance, and chronic structural unemployment. [64] On 2 March 1977, Libya officially became the "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya". Pan, Chia-Lin (1949) "The Population of Libya", Basic People's Congress (country subdivision), "للقانون رقم 59 لسنة 2012 ميلادية بشأن نظام الإدارة المحلية", "Is Local Government in Libya the Solution? [63] This resulted in the arrest and executions of the coup plotters. Many snack vendors prepare these sandwiches and they can be found all over Libya. Led by Khalifa Haftar, they control much of eastern Libya. Asida is a sweet version of Bazeen, made from white flour and served with a mix of honey, ghee or butter. The country hosted the 1982 African Cup of Nations and almost qualified for the 1986 FIFA World Cup. Libya became the setting for the hard-fought North African Campaign that ultimately ended in defeat for Italy and its German ally in 1943. The animals that used to live there have all disappeared, hunted when they are edible or released when they are not," explains zoologist Khaled Ettaieb. At least 3,000 targets were struck in 14,202 strike sorties, 716 of them in Tripoli and 492 in Brega. Although before 2011 a small number of private institutions were given accreditation, the majority of Libya's higher education has always been financed by the public budget. A peaceful transition will only succeed in Libya through a significant and coordinated effort in supporting a future Government of National Accord…". After a successful invasion of Tripoli by Habsburg Spain in 1510,[43] and its handover to the Knights of St. John, the Ottoman admiral Sinan Pasha took control of Libya in 1551. The government initiated the bid in response to the state of assaults carried by Haftar’s LNA. Arkenu and Western Uweinat are ring complexes very similar to those in the Aïr Mountains. [244] By 1948, about 38,000 Jews remained in the country. The elections were marred by violence and low turnout, with voting stations closed in some areas. There are also dust storms and sandstorms. [150] Early results of the vote showed the National Forces Alliance, led by former interim Prime Minister Mahmoud Jibril, as front runner. [46] The Karamanlis ruled from 1711 until 1835 mainly in Tripolitania, and had influence in Cyrenaica and Fezzan as well by the mid-18th century. [183] These militias make up the so-called Libyan Shield, a parallel national force, which operates at the request, rather than at the order, of the defence ministry.[183]. Libyan cuisine is a mixture of the different Italian, Bedouin and traditional Arab culinary influences. Libya was a pioneer state in North Africa in species protection, with the creation in 1975 of the El Kouf protected area. [194] Water supply is also a problem, with some 28% of the population not having access to safe drinking water in 2000. Geographically they corresponded approximately to the level of a township or borough. Most Libyans associate themselves with a particular family name originating from tribal or conquest based, typically from Ottoman forefathers, heritage. clarification needed][254] Since 2007 some new private universities such as the Libyan International Medical University have been established. As of 2004[update], this number has increased to more than 200,000, with an extra 70,000 enrolled in the higher technical and vocational sector. The so-called Geneva-Ghadames talks were supposed to bring the GNC and the Tobruk government together at one table to find a solution of the internal conflict. The decline of the Roman Empire saw the classical cities fall into ruin, a process hastened by the Vandals' destructive sweep through North Africa in the 5th century. [89], In the weeks that followed, American forces were in the forefront of NATO operations against Libya. This act drastically altered the fabric of the Libyan countryside, and cemented the cultural and linguistic Arabisation of the region.[36]. There is also a small Anglican community, made up mostly of African immigrant workers in Tripoli; it is part of the Anglican Diocese of Egypt. The Hafsids ruled Tripolitania for nearly 300 years. Although oil drastically improved the Libyan government's finances, resentment among some factions began to build over the increased concentration of the nation's wealth in the hands of King Idris. [197], Libya imports up to 90% of its cereal consumption requirements, and imports of wheat in 2012/13 was estimated at about 1 million tonnes. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets), Coordinates: 27°N 17°E / 27°N 17°E / 27; 17, This article is about the country in northern Africa. Libyan authorities rejected European Union's plans aimed at stopping migration from Libya. [36], Ibn Ziri's Berber Zirid dynasty ultimately broke away from the Shiite Fatimids, and recognised the Sunni Abbasids of Baghdad as rightful Caliphs. Libya has many characteristics which distinguish it organizationally from other states. Reflecting the "nature of giving" (Arabic: الاحسان‎ Ihsan, Berber languages: ⴰⵏⴰⴽⴽⴰⴼ Anakkaf ), amongst the Libyan people as well as the sense of hospitality, recently the state of Libya made it to the top 20 on the world giving index in 2013. p. 72, Bearman, Jonathan (1986). Historically the area of Libya was considered three provinces (or states), Tripolitania in the northwest, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in … [209], In 2007 Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, the second-eldest son of Muammar Gaddafi, was involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which sought to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area. |state=autocollapse: {{Heads of State of Libya|state=autocollapse}} shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {}, a {}, or some other table on the page with the collapsible attribute; shows the template in its expanded state if there are no other collapsible items on the page Most notably, radical Islamist fighters seized Derna in 2014 and Sirte in 2015 in the name of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. According to the CIA, the official language of Libya is Arabic. The earliest known name of such a tribe was the Garamantes, based in Germa. The so-called "pacification of Libya" by the Italians resulted in mass deaths of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica, killing approximately one quarter of Cyrenaica's population of 225,000. [117], During 2015 an extended series of diplomatic meetings and peace negotiations were supported by the United Nations, as conducted by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), Spanish diplomat Bernardino Leon. Inquiries regarding U.S. citizens in Libya may be directed to the Department of State’s Office of Overseas Citizens Services. Zirid rule in Tripolitania was short-lived though, and already in 1001 the Berbers of the Banu Khazrun broke away. [43] In 1611 the deys staged a coup against the pasha, and Dey Sulayman Safar was appointed as head of government. London: Zed Books. [180] President Mohammed el-Megarif promised that empowering the army and police force is the government's biggest priority. 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World due to prevailing presence of desert environment early as 8000 BC were moved to an air base appellate.., Arabic-speaking and Arab-cultured `` before the sandstones surrounding them this Guide to law Online Libya contains selection... [ 49 ] Tripoli from the Byzantines definitively 1,759,540 square kilometres 135 ] last...