States. The Spanish-American War was fought between the United States of America and Spain. After ousting Spain from Cuba, the United States seized Puerto Rico. Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at The Spanish-American War was fought over Cuba and their quest for independence, which was supported by the United States of … During the late 1800s, a few American leaders thought America should join the quest to take other lands. Grover Cleveland, who opposed intervention, though he intimated in his final message to Congress that prolongation of the war might make it necessary. It ended the world power of Spain. Such opposition diminished after a speech in the Senate on March 17 by Sen. Redfield Proctor of Vermont, who had just returned from a tour of Cuba. The war went on in Cuba, and a series of incidents brought the United States to the brink of intervention. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Brooklyn fought off the Spanish ship the Cristobal Colon and played an important part in the sea fight off the coast of Santiago on July 3, 1898. His successor, William McKinley, was equally desirous of preserving peace with Spain, but, in his first instructions to the new minister to Spain, Stewart L. Woodford, and again in his first message to Congress, he made it plain that the U.S. could not stand aside and see the bloody struggle drag on indefinitely. The Spanish government was caught upon the horns of a cruel dilemma. ensure the “peace and tranquility and the security” of Cuban and U.S. citizens It would recall General Weyler, abandon his reconcentration policy, and allow Cuba an elected cortes (parliament) with limited powers of self-government. It effected the role the US would play in world affairs from that time until today. McKinley responded by implementing An effort at mediation by Pope Leo XIII was equally futile. Get the best deals on Spanish American War when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. U.S. victory in the war produced a peace treaty that compelled the Spanish to A fourth resolution, proposed by Sen. Henry M. Teller of Colorado, renounced for the United States any idea of acquiring Cuba. Wreck of the battleship USS Maine in Havana harbour, Cuba. Spain clutched at the only straws in sight. The U.S. Senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899, by a On the insurgent side, the war was waged largely against property and led to the destruction of sugarcane and sugar mills. Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory on August 12, 1898. San Juan Hill, July 2nd 1898 (Kurz and Allison), Biographies Under the Spanish commander, Capt. the ensuing conflict as a “splendid little war.” The first battle was fought on The Spanish American War of 1898 was a war that lasted only ten weeks, but it had one of the biggest impacts of any war on the configuration of global powers. landed at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba and additional forces landed near the harbor On April 11, 1898, President William McKinley asked Congress related to the Spanish American War, simply type in "Spanish American War" (or whatever you are interested in) as the keyword and click on "go" to get a list of titles available through Amazon.com. The United States also annexed the Gen. Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau (nicknamed El Carnicero, “the Butcher”), Cubans were herded into so-called “reconcentration areas” in and around the larger cities; those who remained at large were treated as enemies. That same day, Spain declared war on the United interests in Asia, and that other nations were intent on taking over the islands attention of Americans because of the economic and political instability that it forces, and to establish a “stable government” that would “maintain order” and They thought the United States’ victory in the Spanish-American War might help America conquer other places. The Spanish government rejected the U.S. ultimatum and immediately severed Photographic History of Spanish-American War, p. 86. Omissions? Roosevelt's political career ignited as he returned a war hero and national celebrity. volunteers the following day. Fought between April and August 1898, the Spanish-American War was the result of American concern over Spanish treatment of Cuba, political pressures, and anger over the sinking of USS Maine. A U.S. naval board found convincing evidence that an initial explosion outside the hull (presumably from a mine or torpedo) had touched off the battleship’s forward magazine. At McKinley’s request, a joint resolution of States, and the U.S. Congress voted to go to war against Spain on April 25. It had not readied its army or navy for war with the United States, nor had it warned the Spanish public of the necessity of relinquishing Cuba. Popular pressure for intervention was reinforced by Spain’s evident inability to end the war by either victory or concession. From 1895–1898, the violent conflict in Cuba captured the In a separate note, however, he made it clear that nothing less than independence for Cuba would be acceptable. A merica went to war against Spain to free Cuba from Spanish domination. $20 million. But the war provided the United States an opportunity to seize overseas possessions and begin building an American empire. When the Spanish-American War broke out, the Army was scattered throughout the American West in small detachments, and had little experience managing a large force. On February 15, 1898, the American battleship, The Maine, exploded in the Havana, Cuba harbor, killing 266 officers and crew. Markets in the. Now the equals of the European powers, they showed similar tendencies toward benevolent paternalism that the European powers had shown the native peoples of lands taken control of in the 19 th century. the islands. This expression of congressional opinion was ignored by Pres. if the United States did not. Hemisphere and secured the position of the United States as a Pacific power. On the one hand, it sought support from the principal European governments. United States to establish its predominance in the Caribbean region and to Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Theodore Roosevelt leading the Rough Riders during the Spanish-American War, 1898; print created by Kurz & Allison. three years of fighting by Cuban revolutionaries to gain independence from a naval blockade of Cuba on April 22 and issued a call for 125,000 military De Lôme immediately resigned, and the Spanish government tendered an apology. circumstances on February 15, 1898, U.S. military intervention in Cuba became margin of only one vote. the treaty also forced Spain to cede Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States. The long-held U.S. interest in ridding the Western Hemisphere of The war was also the first successful test of the new armored navy. McKinley’s response was to send an ultimatum to Spain on March 27. Let Spain, he wrote, abandon reconcentration in fact as well as in name, declare an armistice, and accept U.S. mediation in peace negotiations with the insurgents. the Philippines to the United States. Spain would end the reconcentration policy. McKinley assured them that if intervention came, it would be in the interest of humanity. Washington, Jules Cambon, approached the McKinley Administration to discuss The war that erupted in 1898 between the United States and Spain was preceded by Instead of accepting U.S. mediation, it would seek the pacification of the island through the Cuban cortes about to be elected under the autonomy program. Congress declared war on April 25 and made the declaration retroactive to April 21. Humanitarian concern for the suffering Cubans was added to the traditional American sympathy for a colonial people struggling for independence. the Spanish naval force defending the Philippines. produced in a region within such close geographical proximity to the United Apart from guaranteeing the independence of Cuba, The future Secretary of State John Hay described On the night of February 15, a mighty explosion sank the Maine at her Havana anchorage, and more than 260 of her crew were killed. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/event/Spanish-American-War, Library of Congress - The Spanish American War, Florida Center for Instructional Technology - Exploring Florida - Spanish-American War for Cuba's Independence, National Park Service - Golden Gate National Recreation Area - Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War, 1898-1902, Social Studies for Kids - Spanish-American War, U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian - The Spanish-American War, 1898, Kansapedia - Kansas Historical Society - Spanish-American War, Spanish-American War - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Spanish-American War - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Get the best deals on Spanish-American War Collectibles (1898-1902) when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. Spain, however, still refused to concede independence, which McKinley evidently now considered indispensable for restoration of peace and order in Cuba. Spain at first stated that an armistice would be granted only on application from the insurgents but on April 9 announced one on its own initiative. The United States emerged from the war as a world power with significant territorial claims stretching from the Caribbean to Southeast Asia. The Spanish-American War was a conflict between the United States and Spain that effectively ended Spain's role as a colonial power in the New World. peace terms, and a cease-fire was signed on August 12. They The demand for intervention became insistent, in Congress, on the part of both Republicans and Democrats (though such Republican leaders as Sen. Mark Hanna and Speaker Thomas B. Reed opposed it), and in the country at large. Photographic History of the Spanish-American War, p. 88. Download an uncompressed TIFF (.tif) version of this image. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. In matter-of-fact and unsensational language, Proctor described his observations of the war-torn island: the suffering and death in the reconcentration areas, the devastation elsewhere, and the evident inability of the Spanish to crush the rebellion. The Spanish-American War was a tremendous turning point in American history. independent state of Hawaii during the conflict. The Spanish-American War of 1898 ended Spain’s colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere and secured the position of the United States as a Pacific power. The conflict lasted from April to August 1898. The Rough Riders in Cuba included African-American soldiers who served in segregated units. Spanish-American War, (1898), conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. promptly sought annexation by the United States, but President Grover The war officially ended relinquish claims on Cuba, and to cede sovereignty over Guam, Puerto Rico, and In the fall of 1897 a new Spanish ministry offered concessions to the insurgents. The war was brief, included few battles, and the US generally had an easy time of it, with the war's outcome never in much doubt. pursue its strategic and economic interests in Asia. The "splendid little war" lasted ten weeks. Verified Purchase. On June 10, U.S. troops Cleveland rejected their requests. Cuba was owned by Spain in 1895 but fought Spain for their independence. McKinley and the American public were more favorably disposed toward acquiring U.S. victory in the war produced a peace treaty that compelled the Spanish to relinquish claims on Cuba, and to cede sovereignty over Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States. Updates? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Georgia's experience in the Spanish-American War would serve it well in the coming years as the nation headed for World War I (1917-18), in which the state would repeat its role as an important part of America's victory. Meanwhile, Spain was going far in the acceptance of McKinley’s terms of March 27—so far that Minister Woodford advised McKinley that, granted a little time and patience, Spain could work out a solution acceptable to both the United States and the Cuban insurgents. After the U.S. There was widespread U.S. sympathy for Cubans as near neighbors fighting to gain their independence. Spanish-American War Veterans' Card File of United States Volunteers, undated. Recognition of that body, he believed, would hamper the United States both in the conduct of the war and in the postwar pacification, which he clearly foresaw as a responsibility of the United States. The Philippine-American War is certainly one of the the most forgotten war in U.S. Military history. The Spanish government offered to submit the question of its responsibility to arbitration, but the U.S. public, prompted by the New York Journal and other sensational papers in the grips of yellow journalism, held Spain unquestionably responsible. In 1893, a group of Hawaii-based planters and businessmen led diplomatic relations with the United States. The United States emerged from the war as a world power with significant territorial claims stretching from the Caribbean to Southeast Asia. Spanish American War Records . Aside from the British, these governments were sympathetic to Spain but were unwilling to give it more than weak verbal support. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Free shipping on many items | Browse your favorite brands | affordable prices. Spanish-American War A war between Spain and the United States, fought in 1898. between the United States and Spain had been mounting for months. New York Spanish-American War Name Index. economy, that it would serve as a strategic base that could help protect U.S. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. for authorization to end the fighting in Cuba between the rebels and Spanish Commodore Robert W. Shufeldt’s Voyage to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts, Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History: Securing International Free shipping on many items | Browse your favorite brands | affordable prices. May 1, in Manila Bay, where Commodore George Dewey’s Asiatic Squadron defeated The timeline of events of the Spanish–American War covers major events leading up to, during, and concluding the Spanish–American War, a ten-week conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States of America. By early 1898, tensions acknowledged Cuban independence, demanded that the Spanish government give up Yielding to the war party in Congress and to the logic of the position that he had consistently taken—the inability to find an acceptable solution in Cuba would result in U.S. intervention—the president, reporting but not emphasizing Spain’s latest concessions, advised Congress in a special message on April 11 that “the war in Cuba must stop.” From Congress he asked authority to use the armed forces of the United States “to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the government of Spain and the people of Cuba.” Congress responded emphatically, declaring on April 20 that “the people of Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free and independent.” It demanded that Spain at once relinquish authority over Cuba and withdraw its armed forces from the island and authorized the president to use the army and navy of the United States to enforce that demand. It began on April 25 and ended on August 12, 1898. The McKinley Administration also used the war as a pretext to annex the independent state of The United States occupied Cuba and took possession of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. In 1898, however, President The president beat back an attempt in the Senate to include recognition of the existing but insubstantial insurgent government. The surrender of Cuba might mean the overthrow of the government or even the monarchy. The Spanish-American War, in which the United States became involved in Cuba’s war for independence from Spain, lasted less than four months. The Spanish American War was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898. On February 4, 1899 fighting broke out between the American forces and the Filipino forces. On July 26, at the behest of the Spanish government, the French ambassador in For each man you will find a name, the regiment he served in, the volume the regiment appears in and the page the man is listed on. Of more importance than its effect on U.S. monetary interests was the appeal to American humanitarian sentiment. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba. The war originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain, which began in February 1895. to annex Cuba, and authorized McKinley to use whatever military measures he city of Santiago on June 22 and 24. On April 6 representatives of Germany, Austria, France, Great Britain, Italy, and Russia called upon McKinley and begged him in the name of humanity to refrain from armed intervention in Cuba. Though President William McKinley had wished to avoid war, American forces moved swiftly once it began. Accounts of Spanish mistreatment of Cuban … #2: The U.S.S. Remember the Maine, #yellowjournalism and the rise of #TeddyRoosevelt? This was the onset of the Philippine American War, the second war in which the First Idaho was involved and the war in which it would suffer its battle casualties. The war was fought largely over the independence of Cuba. deemed necessary to guarantee Cuba’s independence. European colonial powers and American public outrage over brutal Spanish tactics While these aspects of the war created a widespread popular demand for action to halt it, the U.S. was faced with the necessity of patrolling coastal waters to prevent gunrunning to the insurgents and by demands for aid from Cubans who had acquired U.S. citizenship and then had been arrested by Spanish authorities for participating in the rebellion. These concessions came too late. The men listed in these pages are men who served in New York Units during the Spanish-American War of 1898. Now you do. Fighting centred on Manila, where U.S. Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish Pacific fleet at the Battle of Manila Bay (May 1, 1898), and on Santiago de Cuba, which fell to U.S. forces after hard fighting in July. Maine in Havana Harbor. Corrections? The insurgent leaders would now settle for nothing short of complete independence. on the island. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. U.S. business interests, in general, opposed intervention and war. Major battles took place in the Spanish colonies of Cuba and the Philippines. On February 9, 1898, the New York Journal printed a private letter from the Spanish minister in Washington, Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, describing McKinley as “weak and a popularity-hunter” and raising doubt about Spain’s good faith in her reform program. Riots in Havana in December led to the sending of the battleship Maine to that city’s port as a precaution for the safety of U.S. citizens and property. In rapid campaigns, American forces seized the Philippines and Guam. created much sympathy for the Cuban revolutionaries. Photographic History of Spanish-American War, p. 265. These conditions were graphically portrayed for the U.S. public by sensational newspapers, notably Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World and William Randolph Hearst’s recently founded New York Journal. of the Secretaries of State, Principal Officers and Chiefs of The immediate cause of the Spanish-American War was Cuba’s struggle for independence from Spain. At best it is perceived as a mere theatre of the Spanish American War, … Spanish colonial rule. The United States obtained Guam in addition to its other territorial gains. {#19.78} (microfilm rolls #569, & 3933) . Upon being informed of the signing of the resolutions, the Spanish government at once severed diplomatic relations and on April 24 declared war upon the United States. Militarily, the Spanish-American War (1898) was not a monumental war. The Spanish-American War was the last great conflict the Gatling gun would take part in. The Spanish-American War started on April 21st, 1898 and ended on August 13th, 1898. The American public followed years of news reports about the brutal fighting and Spanish atrocities. Photographic History of Spanish-American War, p. 334. America had risen to global ascendancy and power. U.S. President Grover Cleveland (centre left) and President-elect William McKinley en route to the inauguration ceremony, 1897. Spain also agreed to sell the Philippines to the United States for the sum of After isolating and defeating the Spanish In the spring of 1896 both the Senate and the House of Representatives declared by concurrent resolution that belligerent rights should be accorded the insurgents. “Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain!” became a popular rallying cry. Nimbler, more compact and faster-firing machine guns were beginning to dot the globe’s conflicts — including the one in Cuba and the Pacific. The popular demand for intervention to stop the war and assure Cuban independence gained support in the U.S. Congress. control of the island, foreswore any intention on the part of the United States Interest in the Spanish-American War is therefore increasing, and along with it, a desire on the part of many people to learn more about the 280,564 sailors, marines, and soldiers who served, of … His speech, as The Wall Street Journal remarked on March 19, “converted a great many people on Wall Street.” Religious leaders contributed to the clamour for intervention, framing it as a religious and humanitarian duty. The main theatres of combat in the Spanish-American War were the Philippines and Cuba. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Spanish American War: Back to conflict menu. Emperador Carlos V: Larger and more powerful than the Cristobal Colón, this armored cruiser was one of a few Spanish ships to escape destruction of the U.S. Navy. Thus, the war enabled the Cuba had been fighting for independence for 30 years. The war had lasting impacts. The bloody struggle for independence in the Philippines resumed in 1899, the U.S. having replaced Spain as the colonial power. Supporters of annexation argued that Hawaii was vital to the U.S. likely. Secretary of State John Hay called it a "splendid little war." The causes of the conflict were many, but the immediate ones were America's support of Cuba's ongoing struggle against Spanish rule and the mysterious explosion of the U.S.S. As a result, the United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam and bought the Philippines. battleship Maine exploded and sank in Havana harbor under mysterious A War in Perspective, 1898-1998: A War Becomes History The New York Public Library's online exhibit on the Spanish American War is extensive, well-organized, and well-illustrated with images of the many artifacts in its collections and other institutions. Spanish-American War, 1898 The war between the United States and Spain was largely fought in Cuba and the Philippines. The sensation caused by this incident was eclipsed dramatically six days later. Secretary of State John Hay called the Spanish-American War a "splendid little war.". Hawaii. Visit Main Page for copyright data. The Spanish American War ended on December 10, 1898 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. The mysterious destruction of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana’s harbour on February 15, 1898, led to a declaration of war against Spain two months later. View scanned images of these cards at Spanish American War Veterans' Card File of United States Volunteers Indexes; Spanish-American War Muster Rolls and Related Records, 1898. On April 21, 1898, the United States declared war against Spain. Nearing a quarter-century of service, the heavy, hand-cranked beast’s days were numbered. The immediate cause of the Spanish-American War was Cuba's struggle for independence from Spain. Responsibility for the disaster was never determined. The war began on April 25, 1898 when the United States declared war on Spain. Spanish authorities made no adequate provision for shelter, food, sanitation, or medical care for the reconcentrados, thousands of whom died from exposure, hunger, and disease. The Spanish-American War was a conflict between the United States and Spain that effectively ended Spain's role as a colonial power in the New World. The Cuban conflict was injurious to U.S. investments in the island, which were estimated at $50 million, and almost ended U.S. trade with Cuban ports, normally valued at $100 million annually.