For additional cooling, huge fans were positioned in front of the core, which could greatly increase the airflow rate. Unlike the Americans and the Soviets, the British had little experience with the behaviour of graphite when exposed to neutrons. [48] The Wigner energy release, details of the reactors and other details of the accident are discussed by Foreman in his review of reactor accidents.[50]. Linsley. Ils sont modérés au graphite, comme le réacteur américain de Hanford, mais refroidis par air[1],[2]. By doing so, he was risking his life by exposing himself to a large amount of radiation. Feel free to reproduce this content but please credit 1 (disputed) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster: 2011 March Location Sellafield, Cumbria, Great Britain. [69] Partly because of this censorship, consensus on the extent of the long-term health impacts caused by the radiation leak has changed over time as more information on the incident has come to light. As a result, consumption of iodine-131 can give an increased chance of later suffering cancer of the thyroid. When their first H-bomb test failed, the decision was made to build a large fusion-boosted-fission weapon instead. The size of the study population is small, but the cohort is of … [5], The fire burned for three days and released radioactive fallout which spread across the UK and the rest of Europe. Entitled Our Reactor is on Fire, the documentary featured interviews with key plant workers, including Tom Tuohy, who was the deputy general manager of Windscale at the time of the incident. The fire spread to surrounding fuel channels, and soon the radioactivity in the chimney was rapidly increasing. [48] The poles were withdrawn with their ends red hot; one returned dripping molten metal. [88], The Windscale Piles (centre and right) in 1985, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 2 août 2020 à 16:51. Synopsis In 1957 one of the two reactors built at Windscale, in Cumbria, England, to produce plutonium for bombs was destroyed by fire, in the world's first major nuclear accident. [64] The Three Mile Island accident in 1979 released 25 times more xenon-135 than Windscale, but much less iodine, caesium and strontium. Nobody, I mean, nobody, can believe how hot it could possibly be.". Elle a été construite sur le site de l'une des usines d'armement du gouvernement britannique (Royal Ordnance Factories) fabricant du TNT, qui a été transformée après la Seconde Guerre mondiale par le Ministre des Approvisionnements afin de produire du plutonium et autres éléments nécessaires pour doter le pays de l'arme nucléaire. Windscale fire: 1957, October 8: A 1988 UK government estimate stated that there would be around 100 deaths by 2007 as a result of exposure to radioactive material. This attempt caused the temperature of the entire reactor to rise, indicating a successful release. Epidemiological estimates put the number of additional cancers caused by the Three Mile Island accident at not more than one; only Chernobyl produced immediate casualties.[82]. [64] Estimates by the Norwegian Institute of Air Research indicate that atmospheric releases of xenon-133 by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster were broadly similar to those released at Chernobyl, and thus well above the Windscale fire releases. The cartridge was finned, allowing heat exchange with the environment to cool the fuel rods while they were in the reactor. The fire which occurred the 10th of October 1957 on the Windscale site along the Irish Sea in England is an accident of the British military nuclear program at its beginnings. Motive Accidental. A more detailed technical assessment was needed, leading to organisational changes, clearer responsibilities for health and safety, and better definition of radiation dose limits. 4,056 – Chernobyl disaster, Ukraine, April 26, 1986. Terence Price said "the word folly did not seem appropriate after the accident". Rods were pushed in the front of the core, the "charge face", with new rods being added at a calculated rate. [65], The presence of the chimney scrubbers at Windscale was credited with maintaining partial containment and thus minimizing the radioactive content of the smoke that poured from the chimney during the fire. [9] Later studies on the release of radioactive material as a result of the Windscale fire revealed that much of the contamination had resulted from such radiation leaks before the fire. [54] Concluding that 2053 was releasing energy but none of the others were, on the morning of 8 October the decision was made to try a second Wigner release. NRPB Reports, Oct. 1957, Nov. 1982. Faced with this crisis, Tuohy suggested using water. [55], Early in the morning of 10 October it was suspected that something unusual was going on. [83] A number of harder-to-detect pure alpha and beta decaying radionuclides were also present, such as 90Sr and 239Pu, but these do not appear in gamma spectroscopy as they do not generate any appreciable gamma rays as they decay. Ce site est le principal complexe de la filière électronucléaire britannique. The event, generally known as the 'Windscale accident' or the 'Windscale pile fire', has been retrospectively rated at 5 on the INES scale . The accident resulted in the first scientifically documented example of intervention, based on radiological protection criteria, to protect the public from an accidental release of radioactivity.