(12) Maintenance of Physiological Co­operation. It is due to the fact that women undergo menstruation. Connective tissue can be broadly classified into connective tissue proper and special connective tissue. 7.28). Image Source: … Its function is to maintain the shape of the structure while allowing flexibility. They represent the rupture of subepidermal connective tissue as a result of abdominal distension, either recent or remote. Reticular fibers are short, fine collagenous fibers that can branch extensively to form a delicate network. Connective tissue is made up of cells and extracellular matrix. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in a liquid called blood plasma. Connective Tissue Associated with Muscle Tissue Quiz: Connective Tissue Associated with Muscle Tissue Structure of Skeletal Muscle Quiz: Structure of Skeletal Muscle Muscle Contraction Types … It forms rings of trachea and bronchi, sternal parts of ribs (= costal cartilages), hyoid apparatus, nasal septum and also part of larynx. Blood, also referred to as vascular tissue, is a type of fluid connective tissue. Biology, Structural Organisation, Animal Tissue, Connective Tissues, Types of Connective Tissues. Abnormal increase of WBCs is in malignancies like leukemia (blood cancer). In fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds RBCs are usually nucleated, oval and biconvex. These fibers allow the tissues to recoil after stretching. In later embryonic stage, RBCs are mainly produced by the liver and spleen. 4 Main Tissue Types Tissue and Distinctive Features Tissue and Distinctive Features Epithelium: Tightly packed cells that cover and line body surfaces. Eosinophil’s can attach themselves to parasitic forms and cause their destruction by liberating lysosomal enzymes on their surface. Three types of fibers are found in connective tissue: Collagen: Collagen fibers are the strongest and most abundant of all the connective tissue fibers. They produce antibodies to destroy mi­crobes and their toxins reject grafts and kill tumour cells. 3. Like to the timber framing of a house, the connective tissue provides structure and support throughout the body. The nucleus is two lobed. They have less number of coarse granules. Connective tissue has three main components: Together the ground substance and fibers make up the extracellular matrix. The types are: 1. The increase in number of acidophils during allergy is called eosinophilia. The periosteum contains blood vessels. This is a blend of hyaline cartilage and dense regular connective tissue. (a) Hyaline Cartilage (hyalos = glass’, Fig. Spongy bone contains red bone marrow but it is without Haversian systems. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. Your organs, eyes, nervous system, and blood vessels can also be affected. The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). (d) Inner circumferential lamellae (= inner concentric lamellae): It is present outer to the bone marrow cavity. In the dense regular connective tissue, the collagen fibres are present in rows between many parallel bundles of fibres. It provides strong support while providing pads for shock absorption. 7.20). In tadpoles kidneys are also haemopoietic. Examples of structures composed of fibrous connective tissue are ligaments, tendons, and the capsules (coverings) around certain organs. The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph unidirectionally towards the heart. It is made of many kinds of proteins. Inherited connective tissue diseases include Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. In mammals thrombocytes are called blood platelets. Other components of the lymph plasma are very much like that of blood plasma, i.e., organic, inorganic substances, water, etc. The nucleus is bean-shaped. Examples: os cordis in the heart of some ruminants (e.g., deer), os penis in the penis of most bats, insectivores, rodents (e.g., rats), carnivores (e.g., dog, walrus), whales, some primates (not man), os clitoris in the clitoris of many carnivores, and os palpebrae in the eyelids of crocodiles. The bone marrow cavity is filled with a soft and semisolid fatty neurovascular tissue termed as bone marrow. The best dense regular connective tissue examples are the tendons and ligaments. It also helps in defending against infection. Structural elements of connective tissue: Connective tissues consist of three parts: cells suspended in a ground substance or matrix; and most have fibers running through it. (One of the embryonic membranes). Connective tissues fill the spaces between other tissues and form organs. Relies on diffusion for nutrition and waste removal. They also help in healing of injuries. What is the significance of transpiration? It is usually located in the capsules and walls of the organs, the dermis of the skin and glands. This tissue consists of star-shaped reticular cells whose protoplasmic processes join to form a cellular network. Dense irregular connective tissue has collagen fibers randomly interwoven, forming a three-dimensional network resistant to distension in all directions. They are probably like mast cells of connective tissue. 7.29) which contain yellowish brown, black or blue melanin pigment granules. These are floating amoeboid cells, the leucocytes (white blood corpuscles), which are mostly lymphocytes. Collagen is found in the tendons, ligaments, skin, cartilage, bone and blood vessels. This tissue is most widely distributed connective tissue in the animal body. It is composed of collagen (= white) fibrous tissue. Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, polymositis, and dermatomyositis are examples of connective tissue diseases that have no known cause. White fibrous connective tissue has great strength, however, its flexibility is limited. In fact these bones become invested upon original cartilages hence their name. reticular. The monocytes also have a short life span of 10 to 20 hours. Increased TLC shows that there is acute bacterial infection. These molecules form a firm gel that gives firm consistency to the ground substance of the cartilage. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/extracellular_matrix, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connective_tissue%23See_also, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connective_tissue, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Body_Organisation%23Connective_Tissues, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/connective_tissue, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anatomy_and_physiology_of_animals_loose_connective_tissue.jpg, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fibers_of_Collagen_Type_I_-_TEM.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphatic_system, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adipose_tissue, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/General_Biology/Tissues_and_Systems/Connective_Tissue, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/adipose_tissue, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Yellow_adipose_tissue_in_paraffin_section_-_lipids_washed_out.jpg. Cartilage is a soft skeletal tissue. Loose connective tissue has much more ground substance and a relative lack of fibrous tissue, while the reverse is true of dense connectiv… The periosteum also contains bone-forming cells, the osteoblasts which produce new bone material. Water alone forms about 90% to 92% of the plasma. Dense connective tissue. The growth of the cartilage is always from the periphery (unidirectional). The volume of blood in an adult person of 70 kg weight is about 5.5 litres. Drumstick is formed by transformation of an X-chromosome. Lymph is a mobile connective tissue comprising lymph plasma (fluid) and lymph corpuscles (cells). The first category includes those that are inherited, usually due to a single-gene defect called a mutation. They are the largest of all types of leucocytes and somewhat amoeboid in shape. Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, referred to as adipose depots. The total count of WBC is useful in diagnosing various diseases. They contain granules in their cytoplasm. Thus the total count of RBCs is more in man than in a woman. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes, and the intervertebral discs. Blood plasma contains a conjugated polysaccharide, the heparin which prevents coagulation of blood inside blood vessels. Hyaline cartilage forms the skeleton of elasmobranch fishes (cartilaginous fishes) and the embryonic skeleton in bony vertebrates. A small bone also develops in the crest of a bird and snout of a hog. Connective tissue (CT) is a one of the four main classes of tissues. It has relatively high compressive strength, but poor tensile strength, and very low shear stress strength. As stated earlier, the areolar tissue is the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body. This is a flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes, and the intervertebral discs. Such a bone is called decalcified bone. There are several types of connective tissue disease. Bone tissue is also called the osseous tissue. It destroys the invading microorganisms and foreign particles in the lymph nodes. The white fibres also occur but they are very fine. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Filling the interior of the bone is the trabecular bone tissue (an open cell porous network also called cancellous or spongy bone), which is composed of a network of rod and plate-like elements that make the overall organ lighter and allow room for blood vessels and marrow. 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